The language arts program for second grade in the Hudson City Schools includes the basic components of language: reading, writing, listening, and speaking. These interactive processes are tools the students can use to construct meaning through an integration of prior knowledge and information from others. The language processes develop simultaneously and are mutually enhancing.

    Second Grade emphasizes the following:

    Phonemic awareness, word recognition and fluency
    Word order and context clues to support word identification and define unknown words
    Comprehension strategies
    Fiction and nonfiction text
    Distinguishing between stories, poems, plays, fairy tales, and fables
    The writing process
    Spelling that is used in daily writing
    Use of nouns, verbs, adjectives
    Legible print with correct spacing
    Following two and three step oral directions
    Oral and visual communication
    Use of appropriate reference material


    Through in-depth concept development and skill building, the Hudson City School District mathematics program has four major goals: to emphasize depth in mathematical thinking, to engage children in meaningful mathematics problems, for students to become fluent in the language of mathematics and to be able to communicate their ideas mathematically, and for mathematics literacy for all students.

    In Second Grade, these goals are accomplished by emphasizing the following "big ideas" in mathematics:

    Creating a math "culture" in the classroom
    Counting by groups (skip counting - emphasizing additive strategies which will lead to multiplicative strategies)
    Working on mastery of certain math addition facts (with and without manipulative)
    Understanding the magnitude of numbers (embedding an understanding of place value in problem solving)
    Explaining solutions and solution paths
    Developing multiple solution strategies and flexibility in problem solving
    Developing strategies for self-checking for errors
    Using landmark numbers to solve problems (10's, 20's)
    Counting, classifying and representing data
    Sorting, describing and comparing 2D and 3D geometric shapes
    Measurement and time


    The primary purpose of social studies in the prekindergarten through high school social studies program is to help young people understand, through the study of the past and present, what it means to be a responsible participant in society.

    We model our course of study from the State of Ohio Content Standards. "Effective social studies integrate history, geography, economics, political science, and other social sciences and humanities.

    Specifically, second grade social studies:

    Helps students develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for themselves and for the common good;
    Prepares students for their role as citizens and decision makers in a diverse, democratic society;
    Enables students to learn about significant people, places, events and issues in the past in order to understand the present;
    Fosters students' ability to act responsibly and become successful problem solvers in an interdependent world of limited resources."

    (Ohio Department of Education, Academic Content Standards, 2003)

    Work serves as an organizing theme for second grade. Students learn about jobs today and long ago in the United States and in other parts of the world. They become familiar with biographies of people whose work has made a difference and use historical artifacts as clues to the past. They deepen their knowledge of diverse cultures and begin to understand how cooperation can help to achieve goals.

    In the study of People in Societies, students learn to compare and contrast multi-cultural groups through the study of the Inuit and Masai cultures. They will identify similarities and differences, explore relationships, and compare how these people respond to their environment.

    The unit, Americana, explores the importance of symbols and landmarks in the United States. Students gain an understanding of citizenship, working within the community, and the ideals represented by various historical landmarks.

    Students investigate history through our study of Williamsburg and Colonial Times. They will learn about the various jobs performed by people at that time. They will also engage in a chronological progression of printed materials and explore biographies of numerous famous and influential people throughout history. Students get to see examples of clothing, tools, and games from that time period and compare them with what we have today.

    In our American heritage and government unit, students get to further explore biographies by writing one of their own in a research project about a famous American. They will understand the significance of individuals from other cultures and the influence they have had upon the heritage of the United States.

    In Geography, Places, and Regions the students begin to gain a better idea of landforms. Students become familiar with vocabulary including plateaus, islands, hills, and mountains. They also start to explore the globe, cardinal directions, and the compass rose. Students create a map of the world as a visual representation of the continents and oceans. This unit enables students to see the community is a small portion of one large world.

    The science program in Hudson City Schools focuses on 3 domains of science throughout our K-12 curriculum: life science, earth science and physical science. Students need an understanding of basic scientific concepts and methods in order to assess the scientific issues that will shape their lives. Children also need to have a solid grounding in the concepts and process skills used in scientific inquiry so they will be able to solve problems encountered in other areas of study and in dealings with the everyday world.

    Children are fascinated by the world and enjoy opportunities to explore it. They can best acquire science concepts and skills by means of an inquiry-based, hands-on, minds-on approach that focuses on the processes and techniques of discovery. Hand-on science also helps to develop positive attitudes towards science, and enhances mathematical, social, artistic, and language skills. A variety of nonfiction reading will be used with each science unit to develop students' ability to read and comprehend nonfiction. Several of these units have received support from the National Science Foundation (NSF).

    The second grade units include the following:

    SOILS - This unit deepens children's awareness and appreciation of soil. Students begin by discussing what they already know about soil and what they want to find out. The unit also motivates students to observe carefully, keep accurate records, and synthesize information from multiple experiments. Using simple tests, students learn to identify sand, clay, and humus in soil. They also study how water affects different kinds of soil. Through long-term experiments, students explore how roots and plants grow in various soils and how, with the help of worms, old plants decompose and become part of soil. Then, applying what they have learned, young scientists investigate their own local soil. Through hands-on activities and class discussions, students answer many of their original questions about soil and pose new questions as well.

    BALANCING AND WEIGHING - From balancing on two wheels as they began to ride a bike to watching a younger child learn to walk to skateboarding to walking on the curb on the way to school, second graders have experience with balance. Building things that topple over from being top-heavy gives children an early understanding of how weight affects balance. This unit builds on students' prior, intuitive knowledge about balance and weight and provides additional activities that help children explore the relationship between balance and weight. Students begin their investigations by exploring different ways to balance objects and examining different strategies for comparing objects. Later, they compare one object with a standard unit to determine its weight. Through hands-on investigations and class discussions, students will not only find answers to many of their questions but also come up with new questions about balancing and weighing.

    CHANGES- This unit helps students investigate examples of changes that affect their daily lives. Specifically, students examine some changes that occur when solids and liquids are mixed or change state. They consider how water freezes, melts, evaporates, and condenses. Students observe the properties of solids, liquids, and gases and describe some of the changes that take place when substances are combined or separated. Over the course of the unit, students notice that some changes occur quickly and that others take longer.

    THE LIFE CYCLE OF BUTTERFLIES - The unit highlights the life cycle of the Painted Lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui). This small, brightly colored butterfly is especially well suited for classroom study since it accepts a variety of foods, is found worldwide, and undergoes complete metamorphosis in a relatively short time. Introducing young children to the concept of life cycles by using one organism as an example is the main objective of this unit. Students also learn observational and recording skills as well as add to their scientific vocabulary. At the end of the unit, after students review their own data and observations of the life cycle of the Painted Lady, they then relate that information to other living organisms.